GHG Situation / UNFCCC & International Rules


The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was adopted on 9 May 1992 and open for signature from 4 June 1992, during the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED), or the Earth Summit, at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

The Convention enters into force on 21 March 1994 and currently has 197 Parties. Thailand becomes a Party in the Convention on 28 March 1995, and thereafter participates in the Conference of the Parties (COP) to this day.

                At the core of the Convention is its objective, which states that:

                “The ultimate objective of this Convention and any related legal instruments that the Conference of the Parties may adopt is to achieve, in accordance with the relevant provisions of the Convention, stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Such a level should be achieved within a time frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to climate change, to ensure that food production is not threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner.”


United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change: UNFCCC


Multilateral environmental agreement (MEA)


9 May 1992

Entry into force

21 March 1994



Key principles

  • Protection of the climate system for the benefit of present and future generations of humankind
  • Equity
  • Common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities (CBDR-RC)
  • Specific needs and special circumstances of developing country Parties
  • Precautionary measures
  • Right to sustainable development
  • Cooperation

Main obligations

All Parties have the obligations, among other things, to develop and communicate national inventories of greenhouse gases and specified information to the Conference of the Parties; formulate and implement measures on mitigation and adaptation; as well as promote cooperation in various areas.

The Convention categorizes Parties, in accordance with the Annexes, into:

Annex I Parties: comprising of developed and industrialized countries, which have the obligations to adopt national policies and take corresponding measures on mitigation, by limiting their emissions.

Annex II Parties: part of developed and industrialized countries, who have the obligations provide support for finance, and transfer and access to environmentally sound technologies and know-how.

Non-Annex I Parties: developing countries, who are not inscribed in any of the Annex. The obligations of Non-Annex I Parties are only those owned by all Parties to the Convention.

Thailand is a non-Annex I Party, and therefore does not have the obligations as specified for those in Annex I and Annex II.

Bodies under the Convention

  • Conference of the Parties (COP)
  • Secretariat
  • Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA)
  • Subsidiary Body for Implementation (SBI)

Legal instruments under the Convention

  • Kyoto Protocol
  • Doha Amendment to the Kyoto Protocol
  • Paris Agreement